Master the Art of Pricing – An Intro to Product Management

Pricing is a critical aspect of product management, playing a vital role in determining the success of a product. It is the amount of money that a buyer gives to a seller in exchange for goods or services. The price directly translates to the value of the product as perceived by customers. Understanding pricing is essential for product managers and marketers to establish the right pricing strategy and generate revenue.

The Three Perspectives of Pricing

When setting the price of a product, there are three perspectives to consider: the customer’s perspective, the society’s perspective, and the economy’s perspective.

1. The Customer’s Perspective

From the customer’s point of view, the value of a product is the perceived benefit minus the perceived cost. Customers assess the benefits they will receive from a product, such as improved status, convenience, or a good deal. If the perceived benefits outweigh the perceived cost, customers are more likely to be willing to pay a higher price.

2. The Society’s Perspective

In a societal setting, the price of a product can have an inclusive or exclusive effect. For instance, high healthcare pricing restricts access to only a certain percentage of society, creating exclusivity. Affordable healthcare inclusively expands access to a larger portion of society.

3. The Economy’s Perspective

From an economic perspective, buyers are considered rational decision-makers. According to economic theory, when the price of a product increases, the demand for that product decreases, and vice versa. However, in reality, buyers are not always rational. Marketers must sometimes adjust pricing strategies to align with consumers’ behaviors and perceptions.

Objectives of Pricing

When setting the price of a product, there are several objectives that a product manager or marketer may have:

1. Survival

In some cases, the primary objective of pricing is to generate revenue to ensure the survival of the product or the company. This is especially true for companies that rely solely on their product’s revenue stream.

2. Profit

Profit is another important objective of pricing. A product must be priced in a way that allows the company to make a profit on each unit sold. Profitability is crucial for the sustainability of the product and the company as a whole.

3. Sales

In certain situations, the primary objective of pricing may be to maximize sales rather than immediate profits. This strategy is often employed by startups or e-commerce companies that aim to acquire market share by offering competitively priced products.

4. Image

Pricing can also be used to create an image of exclusivity or premium quality. Setting a higher price for a product can communicate that it is of higher value or quality, appealing to customers who seek premium products.

Pricing Strategies

When determining the pricing strategy, a product manager or marketer can choose between cost-plus pricing and value-based pricing.

1. Cost-Plus Pricing

In cost-plus pricing, the price of a product is calculated by adding a markup percentage to the cost of production. This strategy is commonly used for commodity-based products or situations where competition is high.

2. Value-Based Pricing

Value-based pricing focuses on the perceived value that customers derive from a product rather than the cost of production. This strategy is applicable when it is challenging to ascertain the actual cost of the product from the customer’s perspective. For example, a doctor’s fee is determined by the value and expertise perceived by the patient.


Pricing plays a critical role in product management and marketing. By understanding the perspectives of customers, society, and the economy, product managers and marketers can set the right price for their products. The objectives of pricing can vary, from ensuring survival and profitability to maximizing sales or creating a premium image. Choosing the appropriate pricing strategy, such as cost-plus or value-based pricing, helps align the price with the perceived value of the product. Mastering the art of pricing is essential for product managers to effectively position their products in the market and generate revenue.

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