Unveiling Cause and Effect: Demystifying Correlation vs Causation | PM Insights

Understanding the relationship between cause and effect is essential in making informed decisions. However, it is crucial to differentiate between correlation and causation to avoid inaccurate interpretations. In this article, we will delve into this topic to master the art of distinguishing between correlation and causation in the realm of product management. We will explore real-life examples and identify the pitfalls associated with assuming causation based on correlation alone. Let’s enhance our skills in accurate interpretations and decision-making.

Linking Cause and Effect: Not always so straightforward

While it may be tempting to assume that two events happening simultaneously or in close succession are directly linked, this is not always the case. Just because something is happening does not necessarily mean it is the cause of another event. The key is to dig deeper and critically analyze the underlying factors.

Real-Life Example: The Stock Market

Let’s consider a scenario related to the stock market. Imagine being a part of Codex Securities, a stockbroking platform. You notice that whenever the Nifty or the Sensex (stock market indices) goes up, the lead conversion order volumes also increase. At first glance, it may seem like a clear cause and effect relationship – when the market goes up, your conversions go up. However, this correlation may not hold true in all situations.

For instance, when the market crashed in March 2020, you might assume that the number of accounts being opened would decrease, resulting in a decrease in order volume. Surprisingly, the opposite happened. Despite the panicky situation, the number of account openings and order volumes did not decrease as anticipated.

This example highlights the importance of not making blanket assumptions based on previous experiences. What you believe to be the cause may not necessarily lead to the predicted effect.

The Danger of Assumptions

Another example where assumptions can be misleading is related to app ratings. Consider a scenario where your Play Store rating drops from 4.6 to 3.9. Initially, you might attribute this decline to a login issue. However, upon further investigation, you discover that the login time has significantly improved, and the real cause for the drop in ratings is related to a different segment of customers who are not able to understand the app properly due to the lack of vernacular content.

This example demonstrates how assumptions can lead to incorrect conclusions. It is important to recognize that the cause may not always align with your initial understanding. To make accurate interpretations, you must be willing to explore deeper and consider all the possible factors that could influence the observed effect.

Skills Enhancement: Navigating the Cause and Effect Maze

Now that we understand the potential pitfalls of assuming causation based on correlation, let’s discuss some strategies to enhance our skills in deciphering cause and effect relationships:

1. Critical Thinking

Develop a habit of critically evaluating the relationship between events. Challenge your assumptions and be open to multiple perspectives. Consider all the variables that could contribute to the observed effect.

2. Collect Data

Data collection is key to accurate analysis. Gather relevant data and analyze it objectively. Look for patterns, inconsistencies, and possible confounding factors that can influence the observed relationship.

3. Experimentation

When possible, conduct experiments to test causal relationships. By manipulating variables and observing the impact on the effect, you can gain valuable insights into the true cause and effect dynamics.

4. Expand Your Knowledge

Stay informed about relevant research, case studies, and industry trends. The more knowledge you possess, the better equipped you will be to make informed judgments about cause and effect relationships.

5. Be Mindful of Assumptions

Awareness of your own assumptions is vital. Recognize that what you believe to be the cause may not always hold true. Stay curious and open-minded in your exploration of cause and effect.


In the intricate world of cause and effect, it is essential to differentiate between correlation and causation. Realize that correlation alone does not guarantee a causal relationship. By honing our skills in accurate interpretations and decision-making, we can navigate the maze of cause and effect with greater precision. Remember to challenge assumptions, gather data, experiment, expand your knowledge, and be mindful of the complexities involved. With these skills, we can make informed choices and drive successful outcomes in the realm of product management.

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